PGS ASA Executives Mocked September 11 Attacks to Torment and Harass a USA Citizen Foreign Worker Blog Listing


PGS Executives also scheduled their abusive harassment meetings to coincide with significant personal dates

Steven Kalavity (SDK) was employed with Petroleum Geo-Services when the September 11, 2001 (9-11) happened. I was on break and travelling to Da Lat, Viet Nam that day. I had just got off the bus from Na Trang where I had spent the night following a train ride from Da Nang. One of the best things for me about working offshore on marine seismic survey vessels was the 5-weeks on the vessel and 5-weeks off the vessel rotation schedule that gave me time to travel. It was morning when I reached Da Lat and I wandered around as I often would when arriving to an unexplored destination. On this morning, I had come across an interesting coffee shop. The attendent of the shop was frantic trying to explain to me what was on the news. For the first time, I actually found a taxi to take me back to the town center and learn what had happened. I saw the videos of the plane crashing into on of the New York World Trade Center Towers.

In 2013, September 11 was the day that my employer, PGS Exploration (UK) Limited, 4 The Heights, Weybridge, England, KT13 0NY (PGSUS) had scheduled an appointment to reveal the outcome to their Investigation for possible implementation of a Performance Improvement Plan that was corrupt management’s solution for eliminating their target of harassment and discrimination without having to address toxic and illegal mismanagement. The paradox is that the meeting that was scheduled for 11 September 2013 never happened in reality. It only took place within the false records that PGS processes within my PGS professional personnel file. The records being processed within my PGS professional personnel file are all fabricated defamatory bullshit. Nothing is signed by me and dates, events and records are made-up. This can be easily proven. In fact, it has been proven within several online publications. Unfortunately, the capability of criminals to lie and steal seems to confound UK compliance organizations like the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) and ActionFraud (the police) who seem not to know how to catch non-compliant criminals.

The actual date is not formed in my memory. But, I was working for PGS offshore Saudi Arabia on an ocean bottom seismic survey when the USA was forming plans of invasian of Iraq following 9-11. The seismic vessel group passed ahead of USA and UK war ships en route to the survey site. Sorties flew above. The PGS Health, Safety and Environment office (HSE) had produced an action plan for the event that the tense situation turned “hot.” PGS assured offshore crew that if certain thresholds were crossed, then the project vessels would retreat out of the area. A few crew members did not show-up to work that crew-change. Those of us who did make-it to crew change assumed that the promised HSE protocols which had been put in place would be executed when the defined conditions for retreat from the survey area were met. What we learned was that these HSE protocols would not be followed. This truth is denied by offshore operators, but money and preserving the corporate power structure will usually take precedence over HSE concerns. Money is real now, and disasters only might happen.

The crew would receive memos from PGS Norway assuring everyone that management was considering events closely and that the survey could carry-on. At the time, the concern was that Iraq had a supply of chemical-weapons – weapons of mass destruction – which could be unleashed in the region when the US coalition invaded. Of course, looking back, this threat was never real. But, PGS HSE did not know that and nether did the crew. PGS still ignored their set procedures that defined what conditions would stop data acquisition. Prior to my work in the marine seismic industry, I had worked for the US Department of Defense (DoD) at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico (WSMR). It was both scary and amusing to me that PGS HSE executives were trying to explain how they had considered weather and missile trajectory scenarios and assured us that our work environment was safe. The cold hard truth is that PGS was not in the best financial health as a company at the time. PGS was desperate to keep on working, damn the weapons of mass destruction! PGS HSE had no clue about Iraq weapon systems.

My work in the marine seismic industry had been in navigation (instrument positioning) and seismic data processing offshore and in remote centers located in Luanda, Angola and Lagos, Nigeria. Most data processing projects in Europe, Africa and the Middle East (EAME) were managed from the PGS office in England. The offshore data processing staff supervisors and managers worked and communicated to vessel and remote center personnel from their office in England. Offshore staff would submit their time and expense sheets through the office in England. This was my only interaction with Gareth Jones. I never worked with Jones in England, as he was working at PGS in Houston when I worked in Weybridge. Nevertheless, he has had no qualms in helping evil criminals hurt a US citizen and his family. (Did I make an unredeemable mistake on my expense form?)

On September 20, 2013, I delivered a formal grievance to senior PGS management in Lysaker, Norway complaining of misconduct directed to me by my supervisor, his supervisor, Simon Cather, and the EAME HR Manager, David Nicholson. However, these events are only preserved within the pages of the termination settlement contract which resides within my PGS personnel records. PGS knew the importance of this date of 20 September because I had to provide a translated copy of my marriage certificate as part of the Tier 2 work permit application. And of course, since I was a USA citizen with a US home address in Houston, Texas, they understood the significance of 11 September, as well. On 11 September, PGS was going to destroy citizen of the USA and his family. This is the evil that I have been writing to the world about since 3 July 2015. (I had meant to publish on 4 July, USA Independence Day from English tyrannical rule.)

The life of wanderlust one can enjoy on the vessel and remote Africa centers rotation schedule was not as appealing with a family at home. On September 20, 2004 I was married to a Thai woman in Thailand. Thailand was my home of record and I would usually depart from Bangkok for crew changes. I was excited when I moved to England to work with the PGS Exploration (UK) Limited, Marine Contract Africa Region business unit. I transferred to work in England from the PGS processing center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (My Thai wife actually wanted for me to remain in southeast Asia.) I thought that I would be able to meet many people in person who I had communicated with by email and telephone in the past.

As a Contract Sales Supervisor, our team would produce bid proposals for offshore Africa data acquisition and processing projects. While living in England, I did meet many of the people who planned and managed projects. But, I did not interact too much with the individual data processors and former co-workers. At PGS, offshore data processing personnel were not in the same work division and management. Operations managed the vessel personnel seismic source, navigation, observers, and real-time data QCs. The Marine Contract business unit worked closely with Operations in assessing operational and commercial risks for projects that would be used for pricing in bids. Over time, I learned that my new work colleagues within the business unit, project management and operations groups had been involved in the decisions made during the Saudi Arabia project.

Through preparing tenders for projects offshore Africa, I learned very quickly the importance of relating successful technical and HSE procedures and processes to winning bids. Work offshore anywhere can be dangerous for operational reasons such as weather, water depth, ship traffic, offshore structures, etc. However, offshore Africa projects especially had to consider issues of political stability, offshore border disputes, and piracy. HSE plans did not only have to be acceptable to the onshore managers, but also to the offshore vessel workers whose safety could be imperiled by these other hazards. That’s how I looked at it anyhow. I was always committed to considering risks and empathetic to the HSE concerns of vessel personnel. I would sometimes bring-up the Saudi Arabia project and relate how the vessel personnel felt when the promised HSE protocols were not followed in the “hot” situation.

What the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform disaster revealed was the hazard of workplaces where reporting health and safety concerns that are serious enough to halt expensive offshore operations is often ignored or retaliated against by the office bean counters. We are told as offshore employee’s that we can stop offshore operations for health and safety concerns. Then how did the Deepwater Horizon disaster happen? What I experienced while working as a USA citizen in England was a business climate where we would tell customers whatever was necessary to win work and then scramble to make sure we could actually meet obligations after we won the work. It seemed very risky and it was. There was a huge gap between the profit that was modeled and that which was realized. It could go either way, which meant our modelling method was not robust. At the end of the day, the only work is from the bids that are won. Risking a percentage loss is better than losing money on idle vessels. Major disasters result from the accumulation of ignoring several smaller risks.

I am not sure why I was chosen to be the target of workplace mobbing. What I do know is that my ability to escape a toxic work environment was more difficult because I was a foreign worker USA citizen. PGS exploited this advantage in the most egregious and mean-spirited way. PGS sponsored me and my family – my children. This is why I will not stop publishing until there is some retribution or until I die. Normal decent people do not treat other people the way that those whom I expose do. These criminal peices of shit belong in prison. There are people of different character and morals. When the NAZIs reigned, some people hid families in their homes while others delivered children to their murderers.

My former coworker’s are morally bankrupt cowards who aid and abet evil criminals, which means they are criminals. In NAZI Germany, laws were evil and law-abiding citizens did evil things obeying evil laws. Good deeds were illegal in NAZI Germany, and yet morally strong people risked their lives by breaking the evil laws. Only evil people will actually break the law to help evil people hurt children and old people – the family of a whistleblower. Everyone that is named and exposed within my protected disclosure could invoke the Confidentiality terms and conditions which form part of their employment contracts and penalize me for false claims or defamatory content. The reason that no legal action is taken when I publish criminal accusations is because the accused are criminals! I publish the truth. And several illegal non-disclosure agreements do not change the truth, John Francas and Lars Mysen.

The criminals include a substantial number of London executives and lawyers who are bribed and used by the corrupt parent corporation to pervert the course of justice with their silence. Truth has patience and while I long for justice today, I know that I must be persistent in my pursuit and message. It is tragic that I cannot share positive stories about my work in England. But, it seems even more tragic to me to not be able to live truth because of the fear of truth. Gareth Jones is too scared to declare which PGS subsidiary he worked for in 2013-2014. Simon Cather is a proud Artist Manager who is too scared to counter accusations that he is a lying criminal cunt (and so is Jon Erik Reinhardsen, for that matter). Eddie von Abendorff is too stupid and probably doesn’t even know what he did. David Nicholson will be reknown for being an HR professional who helped collapse the Norwegian low-corruption myth and setting the corporate cock-sucking record during his 40+ year career (But, Joshua May is gaining in you!) My former co-worker John Barnard was copied on several emails and knows the truth. But, John agreed to be a criminal and help destroy my children’s future. My hope is that your children can enjoy visiting your criminal pussy-arse(sp) in prison. Truth and justice has patience.


The Disgrace that is Norway’s Corrupt Equinor

The London Employment Law Racket – Part 10

The Crimes of Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS) CEO Jon Erik Reinhardsen (4-Sep-2016)

The Norwegian government has been actively involved in the obstruction of justice and fraud directed to a USA citizen victim of crimes and whistleblower. The Norwegian government promoted accused criminals implicated in this racketeering into key positions within their top companies. Jon Erik Reinhardsen was CEO and President of Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS). Reinhardsen served as a director of the PGS subsidiary PGS Exploration (UK) Limited in England. Steven Kalavity (SDK) is a USA citizen who was employed by PGS Exploration (UK) Limited on a company sponsored Tier 2 visa – work permit. SDKs dependent family members lived with SDK in England from September 2010 – December 2013 while Reinhardsen had substantial authority over the toxic and corrupt workplace during this period. Criminal Reinhardsen is now Chairman of the Board for Norway’s largest company, Equinor where, through his criminal silence, he continues to defraud and defame a whistleblower and the greater oil and gas industry.

SDKs employment with PGS Exploration (UK) Limited ended in December 2013 through a termination settlement agreement which was proffered following the submission of a workplace grievance. The termination settlement agreement included Confidentiality terms and conditions prohibiting publication of content disparaging PGS stakeholders. It is 4 July 2021 and their has been multiple publications that have disparaged PGS stakeholders. Yet, PGS or any of its stakeholders, has ever cited a breach in the contract? SDK is a geophysicist and not a lawyer. But, over time SDK has deduced the that grievance was legally and contractually protected public disclosure. SDK was terminated illegally through a fraudulent termination settlement agreement. This is the reason that SDK has been able to publish so much material. Whistleblowing is protected and such agreements to silence whistleblowers are illegal under Norwegian law and clauses which prohibit whistleblowing are unenforceable under English law. Of course, the reality in Norway is that corporate executives are above the law and allowed to defraud and rob citizens and those who invest in Norwegian companies in the belief that laws are fairly applied.

Open Letter to the Office of the Prime Minister of Norway, Erna Solberg (12 July 2019)

Norwegian corporate executives were not only permitted, but also rewarded, for defrauding and defaming a USA citizen whistleblower who caught-on to the fact that business practices were not as nearly as pristine as the Responsibility Reports or contracts stated that they were. Norwegian companies gain advantage by the perception that business dealings with them are some of the least corrupt in the world. Transparency International publishes their Corruption Perception Index (CPI) for 180 countries and Norway always rates one of the least corrupt places to do business. SDK was proud to work for the Norwegian based PGS for this reason especially. When SDK did present information that laws were being broken by PGS Exploration (UK) Limited executives, he expected a fair and timely resolution. SDK did not expect the violent and illegal whistleblower retaliation.

Norwegian, UK, and USA agents have been allowed to defraud and defame – blacklist – a USA citizen whistleblower. But, in the process Norwegian, UK, and USA agents have also defrauded government agencies in these countries. This is all very illegal and morally bankrupt. All the perpetrators of these crimes against SDK and his family are not punished, but protected and often promoted. It is essential that Norway maintain the false perception of their corruption. A positive perception of Norwegian businesses is beyond reproach allows the criminal corporate and political elite to remain in power. In the final analysis, one has to ask themselves reasonably, what purpose have Confidentiality terms and conditions which prohibit the publication of disparaging content if SDK can publish that Reinhardsen is a “lying criminal cunt” repeatedly?

A fraudulent contract is not enforceable and points to a wider criminal conspiracy intended to silence the exposing criminal activity in a Norwegian corporation. In sparsely populated Norway, all corporations are connected and exposing corruption in one, exposes a wider-spread corruption in corporate socialist Norway. As a victim of these crimes and continued harassment, lies, and retaliation, the damage from the betrayal has been significant to SDK, but even more so to his dependent family members who were owed a duty of care and fond memories of living in England. This is why I will continue to expose the moral weakness and lack of human decency and unprofessionalism of my former co-workers. The persons names have been named and accusations published. Personally, SDK does not know how you sleep at night. It is SDKs hope that for many nights in the future all of you will awaken in prison reconsidering your cowardice and submission to evil for upward mobility and money. Because we know that you have been rewarded for protecting criminals and that’s a crime in of itself!

If SDK claims are not true, then invoke the terms and conditions of the termination settlement contract.


ExxonMobil Hires Corrupt and Dangerous PGS for 4D Survey Offshore Guyana

Doing business with PGS is a risky decision.

Norway company PGS ASA (PGS) has been awarded a 4D seismic acquisition contract by ExxonMobil for work offshore the South American country of Guyana.

PGS will deploy a GeoStreamer equipped RamformTitan class seismic acquisition vessel in the fourth quarter of 2021 with the acquisition slated for completion in the first quarter of 2022.

President & CEO in PGS, Rune Olav Pedersen said: “We acquired the 4D baseline of this area and consider it strategically important for us to be awarded a repeat survey for parts of the initial program. We are very pleased with the recognition of our Ramform acquisition platform and superior multi-sensor GeoStreamer technology, which are well suited for high-quality 4D acquisition programs. 

“The contract adds further visibility to our order book for the coming winter season.”

PGS President and CEO, Rune Olav Pedersen is a trained lawyer and also a former General Counsel at PGS. Pedersen, along with several Board of Directors and Executives, have been accused of several health and safety as well as financial crimes. They have never answered these accusations in a responsible and thoughtful way for customers and investors. PGS has also never denied the many accusations. Instead, PGS suppresses and destroys evidence of their crimes.

PGS has misused company resources to silence such accusations. Through search engine manipulation, social media censorship, and vexatious litigation in countries such as Thailand, PGS has deceived stakeholders regarding their health and safety practices and anti-corruption initiatives.

PGS along with corrupt legal firms Watson Farley & Williams and Thailand’s Duensing – Kippen have conspired to illegally used non-disclosure agreements and threatened criminal defamation claims to silence legally and contractually protected disclosure (whistleblowing) exposing their corrupt and dangerous business practices.

PGS routinely use of corrupt law firms to silence critics of their corrupt and unsafe practices. PGS bribes and colloborates in elaborate money laundering schemes. PGS’ misuse of legal processes are directed to keep defrauded and defamed whistleblowers financially incapable of alerting stakeholders of the operational dangers and financial risks of doing business with them.

Pedersen, as well as other PGS agents, along with law firms Watson Farley & Williams, and Duensing – Kippen do not invoke non-disclosure / confidentiality terms and conditions against those who speak-out because the underlying contracts are illegal and only intended to silence health and safety whistleblowers. Publications referring to company agents as fraudsters, assholes and even “lying criminal c**ts” are not acted upon. The illegally used extortive agreements are meant to coerce and threaten concerned professionals into silence.

PGS’ fraudulent silence imperils the health and safety and reputation of companies they do business with. ExxonMobil needs to demand that PGS honor its contractual confidentiality terms and conditions which are included into contract to protect the reputations and value of all PGS stakeholders. ExxonMobil risks their own health and safety reputation and objectives if they do not demand proof of compliance by PGS of their whistleblowing procedures and reporting which impact every aspect of offshore seismic data acquisition. PGS ignores contractual commitments which is tantamount to intentionally deceiving customers with regard to their health and safety and anti-corruption commitments.

Transparency Internation gives Guyana a Corruption Perception Index (CPI) ranking of 83/180 with a CPI score of 41/100 [2020]. Norway’s CPI ranking is a deceptive 7/180 with a CPI score of 84/100. Norway corporations export their corruption and essentially keep their own CPI ranking favorable through engaging in their corrupt practices within countries that they do business with who have less favorable CPIs.

PGS has four (4) contracts now with article author SDK which all prohibit publications which disparage PGS or any of its stakeholders. However, since three (3) of these contracts are fraudulent/illegal, PGS does not invoke such terms and conditions. PGS actively defrauds customers and investors about their corrupt and dangerous operational business practives. Doing business with PGS is a very risky operation. ExxonMobil / Guyana needs to demand PGS be transparent and forthcoming about their business practices.

ExxonMobil needs to conduct a thorough due diligence of PGS practices. ExxonMobil should not sign contracts with businesses that engage in unsafe and illegal work practices and violently retaliate severely against whistleblowers who want a safe and profitable upstream oil and gas industry.


David Nicholson HR Manager at PGS Exploration (UK) Ltd.

The London Employment Law Racket – Part 9

David Nicholson was the fraudster who set it all in motion and was allowed to devalue PGS ASA. Nicholson remains silent because he is a lying criminal cunt who abused his position to retaliate against a victim of PGS ASA crimes and whistleblower.

The Crimes of Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS) CEO Jon Erik Reinhardsen (4-Sep-2016)


What if ActionFraud took Action?

The London Employment Law Racket – Part 8

Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS) CEO Jon Erik Reinhardsen Should Resign (6-Sep-2015)

Taking a man’s livelihood away from him is akin to killing him [07:30 – 08:00] – It’s a serious crime : Excerpt from – HBO Dave Chappelle Unforgiven [Full Show]
Pouring Salt on the Wound: Psychologists Identify the Effects of ‘Institutional Betrayal’


Watson Farley & Williams Profits from Corruption and Human Rights Abuses

This website and all the publications it hosts, along with website SeismicRiskManagement,com and Pinterest exists because those mentioned within the posts are criminals who want to continue to lie to their investors, competitors. and even their employees. Confidentiality contracts, such as the one SDK signed with PGS ASA, are intended to prohibit disparaging publications. Corrupt lawyer Rune Olav Pedersen, PGS ASA President and CEO, obviously has no integrity nor competence in honoring legal contracts. The exception to prohibitions in publishing disparaging content is whistleblowing. PGS ASA and its co-conspirators, pervert the course of justice by NOT abiding by their contract terms. They allow the reputation and value of their enterprise to be diminished so that evil and corrupt incompetent management and staff can remain in place. It is obscene. Decent and honest professionals should not do business with these corrupt companies that distort the free market and empower the dishonest and evil to shape the industry for their benefit.

The London Employment Law Racket – Part 3

The Watson Farley & Williams racket is to make illegal behavior appear legal – for the right price! Only corrupt moneyed corporations have such money to spend to illegally retaliate against whistleblowers. Corrupt actors misappropriate and steal resources from shareholders, deceive stakeholders, and preserve an incompetent power structure incapable of competing in a fair market. They do everything professional organizations define as unprofessional and unethical.

Data Protection Act 2018

148 Destroying or falsifying information and documents etc.

(1)This section applies where a person—
(a)has been given an information notice requiring the person to provide the Commissioner with information, or
(b)has been given an assessment notice requiring the person to direct the Commissioner to a document, equipment or other material or to assist the Commissioner to view information.
(2)It is an offence for the person—
(a)to destroy or otherwise dispose of, conceal, block or (where relevant) falsify all or part of the information, document, equipment or material, or
(b)to cause or permit the destruction, disposal, concealment, blocking or (where relevant) falsification of all or part of the information, document, equipment or material,
with the intention of preventing the Commissioner from viewing, or being provided with or directed to, all or part of the information, document, equipment or material.
(3)It is a defence for a person charged with an offence under subsection (2) to prove that the destruction, disposal, concealment, blocking or falsification would have occurred in the absence of the person being given the notice.

Corrupt actors cede power that they are not entitled to and protect co-conspirators and facilitators of non-compliant and criminal acts through bribery, embezzlement and money laundering schemes paid for “legal” advice intended to manipulate and obstruct due process.

This definition crystallizes most of the elements of bullying; the frequency of the bullying, the evolving bullying process and the negativity which results. But it does not reference the power imbalance between the bully and the one bullied; nor does it reference those who observe the bullying but do not intervene; the bystanders. For, as every whistleblower knows, it is the bystanders who underwrite bullying.

The Invisible Hand: When the Firm Becomes the Bully


Watson Farley & Williams’ Neeta Aulak

The London Employment Law Racket – Part 2

What is the Tier 2 General Visa?
1946. 18 U.S.C. 1544 — MISUSE OF A PASSPORT

PGS ASA CEO & President, as well as former PGS ASA General Counsel, Rune Olav Pedersen, does not consider any of the several images and blog articles posted online since 3 July 2015 disparaging or a breach of the Confidentiality terms and conditions of PGS ASA employment contracts GOVERNED BY THE LAWS of ENGLAND. PGS ASA enlists Global legal firm Watson Farley & Williams to advise them on their employment contracts. Both PGS ASA and Watson Farley & Williams QUIETLY LOVE THESE PUBLICATIONS. How else could they remain published?

HR Is Not Your Friend. Before You Complain At Work, Watch This…

Neeta Aulak is a disgrace to the legal profession and should be investigated for multiple crimes. This employment law racket hurts the honest hard working professional and protects the corrupt and evil corporate elite and their minions. Aulak has a contract that allows her to sue the author, SDK. The problem is that the contract is fraudulent, just like Neeta Aulak “compliance.”

In London, employee’s who are proffered a settlement contract to end their employment are required to seek the advice of a solicitor/lawyer.

This requirement for solicitor advice to accept a settlement offer makes termination by settlement contract an inside game for lawyers. Corporations obviously have an advantage of the purse. Unscrupulous lawyers/solicitors will put on their show understanding always where the money comes from. The most lucrative market is to favor the party that controls the money. This is the racket. It is the perfect recipe for bribery, fraud, and embezzlement to intimidate the hapless employee into accepting terms and conditions that favor the corrupt moneyed corporation. Law firms protect corrupt management and dispose of harassed and abused employees through manipulating the fair and legal processes and raking-in the cash. Corrupt global law firm Watson Farley & Williams is at the pinnacle of this corruption.

This website can only exists because Watson Farley & Williams got caught. Still, Watson Farley & Williams continue to pervert the course of justice and lie with impunity due to a dysfunctional compliance and police system that seems impotent against white collar corporate crime. Watson Farley & Williams’ fraudulent contracts with their confidentiality terms and conditions are never invoked because all lawyers involved know these instruments are to intimidate the abused into silence. They are worthless in a just court room. Neeta Aulak knows this better than most lawyers of “compliance.”


Rhodri Thomas and the London Employment Law Racket that Helps Corrupt Corporations Destroy Whistleblowers

Ask Rhodri Thomas how unscrupulous Employment Law Firms help corrupt corporations harass, defame, defraud and destroy abused employee whistleblowers and their families with the help of the corrupt Global Employment Law Racket

Norway Exporting Corruption

Settlement Agreements may be offered in many situations, whether during or after employment. They may, for example, be used to avoid a drawn-out performancedisciplinary or redundancy process, which can often be costly and time-consuming for an employer and lead to ongoing contention with the employee.

– Landau Law Solicitors website


PGS ASA: Q1 2021 Update Disinformation

View the autosave


PGS ASA 22 April 2021 Audiocast Q1 2021 Results – What to Expect

PGS ASA Continually Lies to its Stakeholders

PGS ASA Board of Directors and Executive Management are Criminally Negligent. PGS ASA Board of Directors and Executive Management are so Corrupt that they do not even attempt to Counter such Allegations through the use of Contracts Containing Confidentiality Terms and Conditions.

Cowardly PGS ASA Board of Directors and Executive Management will allow the reputations and value of companies associated with the agents of the criminal conspiracy to be damaged rather than address allegations of their corruption.